Kakareka Sergey*; Salivonchyk Sviatlana
Institute for Nature Management, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus - Laboratory on Transbounadry Pollution,Skoriny 10 , Minsk 220114, Belarus
Abstract: The article is devoted to assessment of air impacts of diesel generator sets which are the main sources of energy at Antarctic research stations and the main stationary sources of anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica. On an example of the Vecherny oasis, Enderby Land, East Antarctica the emissions of NOx, SO2, PM10 were estimated, surface concentrations of NO2, SO2, PM10, and levels of dry deposition of PM10 were calculated for various periods of exploration of the oasis using data on diesel generator capacities. A comparison of these estimates with the air quality standards and background air concentrations was made. It has been established that the area of increased maximum hourly surface concentrations of sulfur dioxide at the receptor points over the past 30 years reduced 43-55 times, nitrogen dioxide – 9-16 times; PM10 – 13-27 times. The area of increased maximum monthly deposition of PM10 reduced 7 times.
A model calculation of emissions, surface concentrations and dry depositions in the Vecherny oasis for diesel generators of the power range corresponding to those used at the Antarctic research stations was performed. Thus, comparison showed that if the most powerful diesel generator currently operating in Antarctica will be installed in Vecherny oasis area of air pollution with maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentrations > 50 μg·m−3 may be 13 times larger than the current one, the area with deposition rate of PM10 > 10 mg·m−2·mon−1 - 40 times larger. It is shown that this approach can be used for preliminary assessment of stationary sources of pollutant emission impacts in Antarctica, including retrospective assessments.
Keywords: Antarctica, diesel generators, emissions, modeling, air concentrations, deposition