We present observations of a duskside shock aurora occurred on 21 April 2001 by the SuperDARN radar at Syowa Station and the all-sky camera at Zhongshan Station (ZHS) in Antarctica when the radar was operated in fast-scan mode covering the ZHS region. With the two independent data sets, we examine ionospheric plasma convection and aurora arising from a sudden impulse (SI) event associated with an interplanetary shock. During the transient shock compression, the aurora was quiescent without any optical emission at the preliminary impulse of the SI. About 7 min later, a new thin auroral arc with brighter emissions and a lifetime of ~14 min expanded westward from the region above ZHS during the main impulse of the SI. SuperDARN radar line-of-sight measurements showed periodical oscillation in the flow direction with ultra-low-frequency waves having a period of ~8 min during the shock compression. We suggest that downward field-aligned current during the preliminary impulse stage of the SI was the main driver of the first plasma flow reversal, and the subsequent new discrete auroral arc may be associated with field-aligned acceleration in the region of the main impulse related upward field-aligned currents. The ground magnetometer observations suggest that the oscillation of the ionospheric convection on the duskside was associated with field line resonance activity.
Optical and SuperDARN radar observations of dusksideshock aurora over Zhongshan Station
Correspondence: email@example.com ORCID:
1. SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, China;
2. National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo 190-0014, Japan
2. National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo 190-0014, Japan
1 Han D S, Yang H G, Liang J, et al. High-latitude reconnection effect observed at the dayside dip equator as a precursor of a sudden impulse. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2010, 115: A08214 DOI:10.1029/2009JA014787.
2 Araki T. A physical model of the geomagnetic sudden commencement. in solar wind sources of magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency waves. Geophysical Monograph Series, 1994, 81: 183–200
3 Han D S, Araki T, Yang H G, et al. Comparative study of Geomagnetic Sudden Commencement (SC) between Oersted and ground observations at different local times. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: A05226 DOI:10.1029/2006JA011953.
4 Yue C, Zong Q G, Zhang H, et al. Geomagnetic activity triggered by interplanetary shocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2010, 115: A00I05 DOI:10.1029/2010JA015356.
5 Li X, Baker D N, Elkington S, et al. Energetic particle injections in the inner magnetosphere as a response to an interplanetary shock. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2003, 65: 233–244
6 Zhang X Y, Zong Q G, Wang Y F, et al. ULF waves excited by negative/ positive solar wind dynamic pressure impulses at geosynchronous orbit. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2010, 115: A10221 DOI:10.1029/2009JA015016.
7 Baddeley L J, Yeoman T K, McWilliams K A, et al. Global Pc5 wave activity observed using SuperDARN radars and ground magnetometers during an extended period of northward IMF. Planetary and Space Science, 2007, 55(6): 792–808
8 Laundal K M, ?stgaard N. Persistent global proton aurora caused by high solar wind dynamic pressure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113: A08231 DOI:10.1029/2008JA013147.
9 Liou K, Newell P T, Shue J H, et al. "Compression aurora": Particle precipitation driven by long-duration solar wind ram pressure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: A11216 DOI:10.1029/2007JA012443.
10 Zhou X Y, Strangeway R J, Anderson P C, et al. Shock aurora: FAST and DMSP observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2003, 108(A4): 8019 DOI:10.1029/2002JA009701.
11 Zhou X Y, Tsurutani B T. Rapid intensification and propagation of the dayside aurora: Large scale interplanetary pressure pulses (fast shocks). Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, 26(8): 1097–1100
12 Motoba T, Kadokura A, Ebihara Y, et al. Simultaneous ground-satellite optical observations of postnoon shock aurora in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009, 114: A07209 DOI:10.1029/2008JA014007.
13 Tsurutani B T, Lakhina G S, Verkhoglyadova O P, et al. A review of interplanetary discontinuities and their geomagnetic effects. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2011, 73(1): 5–19
14 Boudouridis A, Zesta E, Lyons L R, et al. Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2003, 108(A4): 8012 DOI:10.1029/2002JA009373.
15 Boudouridis A, Lyons L R, Zesta E, et al. Nightside flow enhancement associated with solar wind dynamic pressure driven reconnection. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113: A12211 DOI:10.1029/2008JA013489.
16 Boudouridis A, Lyons L R, Zesta E, et al. Dayside reconnection enhancement resulting from a solar wind dynamic pressure increase. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: A06201 DOI:10.1029/2006JA012141.
17 Liu J J, Hu H Q, Han D S, et al. Decrease of auroral intensity associated with reversal of plasma convection in response to an interplanetary shock as observed over Zhongshan Station in Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011, 116: A03210 DOI:10.1029/2010JA016156.
18 Hori T, Shinbori A, Nishitani N, et al. Evolution of negative SI-induced ionospheric flows observed by SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2012
19 Egeland A, Burke W J, Maynard N C, et al. Ground and satellite observations of postdawn aurorae near the time of a sudden storm commencement. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1994, 99(A2): 2095–2108
20 Sandholt P E, Farrugia C J, Burlaga L F, et al. Cusp/Cleft auroral activity in relationship to solar wind dynamic pressure, interplanetary magnetic field Bz and By. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1994, 99(A9): 17323–17342
21 Zhou X Y, Fukui K, Carlson H C, et al. Shock aurora: Ground-based imager observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009, 114: A12216 DOI:10.1029/2009JA014186.
22 Iyemori T. Storm-time magnetospheric currents inferred from mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 1990, 42: 1249–1265
23 Yang H, Sato N, Makita K, et al. Synoptic observations of auroras along the postnoon oval: a survey with all-sky TV observations at Zhongshan, Antarctica. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2000, 62(9): 787–797
24 Hu H Q, Liu R R, Wang J F, et al. Statistic characteristics of the aurora observed at Zhongshan station, Antarctica. Chinese Journal of Polar Research, 1999, 11: 8–18
25 Lyons L R, Blanchard G T, Samson J C, et al. Coordinated observations demonstrating external substorm triggering. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1997, 102(A12): 27039–27051
26 Chisham G, Lester M, Milan S E, et al. A decade of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN): Scientific achievements, new techniques and future directions. Surveys in Geophysics, 2007, 28(1): 33–109
27 Ruohoniemi J M, Baker K B. Large-scale imaging of high-latitude convection with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network HF radar observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1998, 91(A9): 10063–10079
28 Burch J L, Reiff P H, Sugiura M. Upward electron beams measured by DE-1: A primary source of dayside region-1 Birkeland currents. Geophysical Research Letters, 1983, 10(8): 753–756
29 Klumpar D M, Heikkila W J. Electrons in the ionospheric source cone: Evidence for runaway electrons as carriers of downward Birkeland currents. Geophysical Research Letters, 1982, 9(8): 873–876
30 Marklund G, Blomberg L, F?lthammar C G, et al. On intense diverging electric field associated with black aurora. Geophysical Research Letters, 1994, 21(17): 1859–1862
31 Bristow W A, Lummerzheim D. Determination of field-aligned currents using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network and the UVI ultraviolet imager. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001, 106(A9): 18577–18587
32 Frank L A, Ackerson K L. Local-time survey of plasma at low altitudes over the auroral zones. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1972, 77(22): 4116
33 Sato N, Murata Y, Yamagishi H, et al. Enhancement of optical aurora triggered by the solar wind negative pressure impulse (SI-). Geophysical Research Letters, 2001, 28(1): 127–130
34 Samson J C, Jacobs J A, Rostoker G. Latitude-dependent characteristics of long-period geomagnetic micropulsations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1971, 76(16): 3675
35 Mathie R A, Mann I R, Menk F W, et al. Pc5 ULF pulsations associated with waveguide modes observed with the IMAGE magnetometer array. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1999, 104(A4): 7025
36 Rae I J, Mann I R, Murphy K R, et al. Ground-based magnetometer determination of in situ Pc4–5 ULF electric field wave spectra as a function of solar wind speed. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2012, 117: A04221 DOI:10.1029/2011JA017335.
37 Walker A D M. Excitation of field line resonances by MHD waves originating in the solar wind. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002, 107(A12): 1481 DOI:10.1029/2001JA009188.
38 Mann I R, Wright A N. Diagnosing the excitation mechanisms of Pc5 magnetospheric flank waveguide modes and FLRs. Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, 26(16): 2609
39 Rae I J, Donovan E F, Mann I R, et al. Evolution and characteristics of global Pc5 ULF waves during a high solar wind speed interval. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005, 110: A12211 DOI:10.1029/2005JA011007